Bog bodies (also known as Bog People) are cadavers that have been naturally mummified with a peat bog. Unlike most ancient human remains, bog bodies have retained their skin and internal organs because of the unusual surrounding area conditions like
- highly acidic water
- low temperature
- lack of oxygen
The organs may be completely preserved, but the bones have not been so lucky due to acid being in the peat that disolved the Ca3(PO4)2 in the bones.
Tollund Man (the bog person in the pictures) dates back to the Iron Age. Archaeologists believe that iron age bog people were killed and deposited in the bogs as a part of a widespread cultural tradition of human sacrifice or execution since they were mostly found having no clothing on, violent deaths and sometimes tied up.
Roger Fenton, Rievaulx Abbey, 1854
Roger Fenton, (1854-5) The valley of the shadow of death. Dirt road in ravine scattered with cannonballs.
Roger Fenton September Clouds (1859)
Roger Fenton, “The Terrace and Park, Harewood House," 1861.
William Holman Hunt, The Shadow of Death, 1870
George Frederic Watts (1817-1904), The Happy Warrior
Mariana in the South, John William Waterhouse
Arthur Hacker, By the waters of Babylon (1888)
The Electrum Vessel of Kul’Oba showing everyday scenes of Scythian warriors, Kurgan of Kul’Oba, eastern Crimea/Ukraine. 4th century BCE.
Monolithic Ancient Stone in Saywite (Sayhuite) Peru could be 12,000 years old
At 45 kilometers from the city of Abancay in Abancay road - Cuzco is the archaeological site Saywite (also spelled Sayhuite) word meaning “stone marker.” The site was described over time by Americanists, travelers and researchers, concluding that Saywite was a religious center of great importance.It is a privileged place of springs, the contour of which many temples were erected as ingenious and indigenous art works were created. As such it would be a ceremonial center of worship of religious magical water features that had great regional importance.
The set is occupying an area of two hectares, being located mostly known as temple and litomaqueta at the top of a small hill, from where the entire worship space is observed. This complex, some researchers divided into six sectors, based on which we write as follows:
Monolith and enclosures
· The monolith. were located in the coordinates: N 0737767/8501272 E, is a granite rock of 2.30 m. height, 11 m. in circumference and a minor diameter of 3.10 m. contains over two hundred figures and they can be classified between: anthropomorphic, fitomorfas, zoomorphic, geographic settings, scenes, farming terraces, irrigation canals, and human constructions, carved reliefs and exploiting natural depressions in the stone. Many proposed - without much sustenance - the stone Saywite was kind of flat stone or sketch made by Inca architects to take control of hydraulic works they performed. Others to worship the inhabitants of the world or the Andean pantheon, divided into three levels of Inca worldview: Hanan Pacha (sky world), kay pacha (Underworld) and uku pacha (the world of the dead), establishing a commitment to wellness with the deities.
· Antropomorfos . they are idols or pictures representing sacred deities Andean worldview. The pre-Hispanic peoples developed their huacas representations or idols of wood and stone, attributing qualities of natural, which were revered and offered up. The Andean people knew their gods with two names: Vilches and Huaca, which means not just any god and idol, but also all places of worship like temples, tombs or other, who worshiped and sacrificed. The idols were representations of divine beings and Incas gave them servants, land, property and transported to Cuzco if it was to control rebellions, as a strategy that gave results, as some of the regions that formed the rose Tahuantisuyo constantly, as is the case of the Collas, Huancas, Avocado and Canaris, without fear of reprisals that could have on their temple mounds that were the symbol of their nation.
· Zoomorphs. Consisting figures of pumas, monkeys, snakes, toads, lizards, crabs and river shrimp. Undoubtedly the species found on the surface of the stone Saywite belong to the natural regions of Peru, who were part of the religious activities of these peoples. The totems are sacred emblems that symbolize a common identity.prehispanic cultures in these species is not the sacrifice that had been given sacred attributes and some of them were part of the pantheon of deities worshiped by the people. So the ancient Peruvians worshiped the bears, cats, Falcónidas, snakes and others and led by the priests were entrusted to cconopas of each of these species.
· fitomorfos. Chroniclers mention that corn was a coveted and festive food. During the corn harvest is brought home with great festivities. The men and women sang and prayed to last long. If one part was cultivated for the production of chicha for ritual purposes and vitality at the same time was a staple of the basket.
· Power Architecture. mesh is projecting irrigation, who designed starting from the peaks. These carvings represent the Apus giving water. Possibly it was the Ampay, from whose snowy peaks out runoff forming channels through tunnels and spread like veins throughout the stone, and even extend to the back and lateral sides of the large model. The whole design of a large agricultural engineering is described. It is the link between all the figures in this case accompanying the central idea of experiential ritual, the irrigation process.
· Palaces . They are perfectly defined facades of buildings and fortresses, with access stairs. The chroniclers describe the buildings that the Incas did, are forts, temples, lodges and others sued overwork as manifested in the ruins that remain, which means that each of these works were performed with a system of organization labor administration in relapsing mita.
· Cities. sculpted There are two groups on each side of the monolith, which lends itself to such an interpretation. The most admired of these buildings is to consider what tools and mills were able to bring these stones from quarries, style them and put them where they are, not having iron tools or machines with wheels.
· Scenes. ’s admirable fight scene graph of the snake ( amaru ) with Toad ( hamppatu ) which is cornered by the body of the snake, but in defensive attitude. They say that in this struggle expires toad, which when cornered by the snake makes a circle of locking himself inside her baba, the snake can not touch the slime that is mortal and the frog is alive to the resignation of its predator .
This figure is universal and myths about it are recorded not only in the Andes, but also in Asia, where it is profuse this representation. The important thing is that this scene, as part of the assembly, expressed myths and transcends geographical representation.
· The enclosures.
Facing the great monolith is the set of residences of the priests of the cult comprising 17 campuses in the first sector, associated with access openings, passageways and stairways three longest has nine steps, which is within the perimeter wall of 22 m. wide by 20 m. long.
The front of this area is oriented east-west. The construction technique in this area is characterized by medium stones leverage of 0.60 m. long by 0.40 m. wide flat sides arranged outward bound with mud mortar and pachillas, its interior is filled with small stones to give more consistency to the walls thereof having a width of 0.70 m. These enclosures are built on a level surface.
It is known that in these sacred places inhabited people who were consecrated to join the service of the gods, to lead the rites, to guard the oracles, to manage their income or to maintain cleanliness. What we prove that worship once institutionalized, became a well-organized apparatus for subjecting ideologically social classes, who were taxed from one generation to the priests and rulers.
Cup with a frieze of Gazelles
Iron Age II Period
Found in Iran
A number of vessels similar in form and technique to this one have been excavated in the rich burials at Marlik, a site southwest of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran; one is also known from Susa, in southwestern Iran.
(Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Helmet from a Vendel (pre-viking) boat grave, Uppland, 7th century Guldrummet.
The helmets which are part of the epoch’s most splendid equipment have long been called Vendel helmets as a type. It seems certain that they must be Nordic work but it would be interesting to know where and when the type, originating perhaps in Roman gladiatorial helmets, appeared in the north.
It is possible to see on the Vendel helmets details which are found on the late Roman crested helmets: for example, the termination of the crest with an eagle’s head, or with both eagles’ and boars’ heads and which may also be combined with pictures of dragons. The helmets with a markedly low crest, adorned with embossed silver foil and set with rivets with decorated domed heads, make other comparisons possible.